Does not apply to test, calibration or alignment equipment for ‘Maintenance Level I’ or ‘Maintenance Level II’. Specified to function at linear acceleration levels exceeding 100 g. 1-7 A.1.a.1.

Encourage development of travel alternatives, including flextime, ridesharing, transit improvements and bicycle facilities. Implementation usually requires the leadership of local or regional transportation agencies, plus support from local political officials and user groups. Road Pricing is sometimes implemented by private companies or public-private partnerships that build new highways.

Political and financial problems have led many state leaders to conclude that California’s nearly two-decade experiment with toll roads has failed, despite fervent hopes and vast investments. When the state first embraced toll roads, think tanks, politicians and government officials couldn’t find enough superlatives to describe them. Whether government-run or privately owned, toll roads were transportation’s future–an effective way to build highways when the state had little money for new construction.

Table – Deposition Techniques – Notes

The Pricing Evaluation discusses factors to consider when evaluating Road Pricing options. If Affordabilityis a major concern, Road Pricing programs can include discounts or a certain number of free passes provided to lower-income households. There is a long history of incorporating vertical equity objectives into transportation policies (i.e., insuring that lower income people have Basic Access). Adam Smith, one of the founders of modern economics, wrote that, “When the toll upon carriages of luxury coaches, post chaises, &c.

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Representative drivers from throughout the Puget Sound region participated in the 18-month study. Four hundred and fifty vehicles from over 275 households were outfitted with an in-vehicle (taxi-like) metering device. The Traffic Choices Meter identified a vehicle’s location and displayed the cost to use each road at the time it was approached. The results represent the value placed on road access by a random sample of diverse volunteer participants using key roads throughout the Puget Sound region. Congestion Pricing is a particularly effective Congestion Reduction strategy. Many economists consider urban traffic congestion virtually unsolvable without some sort of congestion pricing.

For example, if it became public policy that all new suburban highway capacity expansion projects will be paid through user tolls, people could take that into account when considering whether to purchase a home that would require frequent highway trips. The central London congestion charging scheme resulted in a 12% reduction in total vehicle–kilometres, and a 30% reduction in car traffic, with a 28% reduction in crashes . Moped and motorbike journeys increased 10-15%, while crashes decreased 4%, and pedestrian crash injuries declined by 6%. Road Pricing reduces total vehicle travel if used to fund roadway capacity expansion that would otherwise be unpriced .

Cash – Machine Embroidery Design

The resolution of the ADC is the number of bits of the digital output of the ADC that represents the measured analogue input. Effective Number of Bits is not used to determine the resolution of the ADC. Digital data recorders, oscilloscopes, “signal analysers”, signal generators, network analysers and microwave test receivers, are specified by 1-3.A.2.a.6.,1-3.A.2.a.7., 1-3.A.2.c., 1-3.A.2.d., 1-3.A.2.e.

This can be done by simply requiring vehicles driven within the area to display a pass, or by tolling at each entrance to the area. Tolls are a common way to fund highway and bridge improvements. Such tolls are a fee-for-service, with revenues dedicated to roadway project costs. This is considered more equitable and economically efficient than other roadway improvement funding options which cause non-users to help pay for improvements . Tolling is often proposed in conjunction with road privatization (i.e., highways built by private companies and funded by tolls).

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Rotary axes need not rotate over 360°. A rotary axis can be driven by a linear device (e.g., a screw or a rack-and-pinion). 1-1.E.2.f . Does not apply to “technology” for the repair of “civil aircraft ” structures using carbon “fibrous or filamentary materials” and epoxy resins, contained in aircraft manufacturers’ manuals. Fully or partially resin-impregnated or pitch-impregnated mechanically chopped, milled or cut carbon “fibrous or filamentary materials” 25.0 mm or less in length when using a resin or pitch other than those specified by 1-1.C.8. Or 1-1.C.9.b.

Certified for civil use by civil aviation authorities of one or more Wassenaar Arrangement Participating States. ‘Reactive material’ shapes are produced by, for example, selective laser sintering. An ‘explosive co-crystal’ is a solid material consisting of an ordered three dimensional arrangement of two or more explosive molecules, where at least one is specified in 2-8.a. For the purposes of 2-8., particle size is the mean particle diameter on a weight or volume basis.

Or 1-3.B.2. For masks and reticles, specially designed for optical sensors, see 1-6.B.2. 1-3.B.1.h. Does not apply to multi-layer masks with a phase shift layer designed for the fabrication of memory devices not specified by 1-3.A.1.

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Equipment designed for multiple platforms are evaluated against each applicable entry 1-7.A.3.a.1., 1-7.A.3.a.2., or 1-7.A.3.a.3. For diver detection “software” or “source code”, specially designed or modified for military use, see the Munitions List. 1-5.D.1.d.2.b. Does not apply to “software” specially designed or modified for the “development” of commercial TV systems. 1-5.B.1.b.2.d.

  • Charging area much smaller than London and divided into central business districts, where scheme applies from 7.30am to 7.00pm, and expressways/outer ring roads, where scheme applies from 7.30am to 9.30am.
  • The ‘handover interface’ is implemented within systems or equipment (e.g., mediation devices) that receive and validate the interception request, and deliver to the requesting authority only the results of interception that fulfil the validated request.
  • This high income elasticity, especially for leisure trips, makes toll roads especially sensitive to macroeconomic conditions.
  • For equipment and devices specially designed for military use see the Munitions List.
  • ‘Specialised equipment for military training’ or for simulating military scenarios, simulators specially designed for training in the use of any firearm or weapon specified by 2-1.

The congestion charge may be unpopular for various reasons, but it does not seem to have any larger effects on everyday lives. Instead, people simply learn to adapt to it. In 2013, Sweden’s second-largest city, Gothenburg, introduced congestion charges for cars. At that time, attitudes among commuters about the idea were very negative, even prompting some political turmoil.

Or 2-21.b., specially designed or modified to enable equipment not specified by the Munitions List to perform the military functions of equipment specified by the Munitions List. Includes “software” designed to destroy, damage, degrade or disrupt systems, equipment or “software”, specified by the Munitions List, cyber reconnaissance and cyber command and control “software”, therefor. Specially designed environmental test facilities and specially designed equipment therefor, for the certification, qualification or testing of products specified by the Munitions List. Does not apply to “first generation image intensifier tubes” or equipment specially designed to incorporate “first generation image intensifier tubes”.

Category 8: Marine

1.6 Done right, network tolling could provide broad benefit, including lower vehicle emissions, fewer accidents, travel time savings, improved roadway performance reliability, and lower operating costs. 1.4 While most revenues are generated on a small portion of the toll roads, the secondary road network should not be ignored, as diversion causes real problems with revenue loss and displaced traffic. The demand for road services will continue to grow and hence so will the need for investment. Worldwide, the stock of motor vehicles is growing at nearly three percent per year. Since the number of vehicle kilometers traveled tends to grow somewhat faster than the stock of motor vehicles, this implies that at least for some segments of the road network, the demand prospects are quite good. The fast urbanization of the developing world adds another dimension that cannot be ignored and explains the strong demand for urban access roads in many of the most populated countries of the world.

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Public acceptance has grown and there is now support to expand the program to other parts of London. In 2004 Mayor Livingstone was reelected, largely due to the success of the congestion pricing program. This is the first congestion pricing program in a major European city, and its success suggests that congestion pricing may become more politically feasible elsewhere. Fee for driving private vehicles in an eight square mile central area during weekdays as a way to reduce traffic congestion and raise revenues for transport improvements. Effective – reduces traffic congestion and other transportation problems by changing travel behavior.

However, existing road user charges in North America are insufficient to cover total roadway costs (Dutzik, Davis and Baxandall 2011; Henchman 2013). Such fees are far lower than the marginal cost of driving under urban-peak conditions. Increasing urban highway capacity typically costs 10-50¢ per peak-period vehicle-mile . Direct user fees are generally the most equitable way to fund improvements because they can represent the actual cost of providing capacity on a particular stretch of roadway, and so avoid cross-subsidies from motorists who do not drive under such conditions. The travel impact of HOT lanes depends on the price structure used. If the price is too low, the facility will experience congestion, reducing the performance for both single-occupant vehicle users and HOV users, resulting in reduced transit and ridesharing.

3.D. Software

Does not apply to Argon “lasers” having an “average output power” equal to or less than 50 W. ‘Non-repetitive pulsed’ refers to “lasers” that produce either a single output pulse or that have a time interval between pulses exceeding one minute. Silicon atc coin rate and other material based ‘microbolometer’ non-“space-qualified” “focal plane arrays” are only specified by 1-6.A.2.a.3.f. The status of hydrophones specially designed for other equipment is determined by the status of the other equipment.

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Variable tolls, with higher prices under congested conditions and lower prices under less congested conditions, intended to reduce peak-period traffic volumes to optimal levels. “Toll roads” and “toll lanes” are roadway facilities financed by tolls. “High Occupant Toll lanes” are High Occupant Vehicle lanes that also allow use by low-occupant vehicles that pay a toll. “Superconductive” electrical equipment specially designed or configured to be installed in a vehicle for military ground, marine, airborne or space applications and capable of operating while in motion. Includes materials specially designed to form explosive reactive armour or to construct military shelters.

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For the purposes of 2-9.b.4., AIP does not include nuclear power. ‘Reactive material’ powders are produced by, for example, a high energy ball milling process. The cultures of cells and biological systems specified by 2-7.h.

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